It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. Date: Monday, 29 October, 2018 - 15:00. ��� This annotated bibliography is an attempt to remind the Christiancommunity that the question of the relationship between Christianity andapartheid is hardly new, that already a large literature exists dealin… South Africa’s Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the Afrikaner people it served had, since the 17th century drawn a distinction between white ‘Christians’ and the apparently unconvertible ‘heathen’ peoples around them. The Reformed Church of South Africa was the largest denomination in the country by far. Critics of apartheid often blame Christians for itsexistence claiming that racial oppression in South Africa is the fruit ofChristianity. Early in his career, he served as a “missionary” in a DRMC congregation in Wynberg, and subsequently in other The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. So it was in the case of apartheid and the Dutch Reformed Church’s Calvinism. This site uses cookies. Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. Statement by Black Ministers of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Afrika (Dutch Reformed Church in Africa) Johannesburg. November 16, 1973. The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) in South Africa is currently striving to revive and enhance its missional identity with its core aspect being a church for Africa, said DRC general secretary Dr Gustav Claassen. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) seems to provide a more negative explanation, namely freedom from fear and freedom from want. The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) helped apartheid tie the black and red threats together as a challenge to white, Christian, and Western values. The heresy of apartheid: Journal article discussing the role of the Dutch Reformed Church in supporting the South African Government's policy of apartheid. The DRC of South Africa uses the symbols of bread and wine to commemorate the death of Jesus Christ. At the previous meeting on October 10, 1973, this gathering decided that it was opposed to apartheid since it cannot be reconciled with the Word of God. Secretary of the General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa Dr. Landman gives an account of the social policy of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa and of its attitude to the ' apartheid ' policy. Bloemfontein: NG Sendingpers, p.47. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 It was only in 1998 that the DRC officially recognized apartheid "as wrong and sinful ... in its fundamental nature." Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. The The Church's Struggle Against Apartheid The failure to denounce, resist and incite to resist apartheid and its resulting violations of human rights, constitutes the failure of the church to live up to its faith convictions. Lean Library can solve it. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The Dutch Reformed Church submission brings to an end three days of testimony from the religious community about their role in the apartheid system. First Dutch in the Cape. The Dutch Reformed Churches of South Africa engaged throughout the 18th century in a constant battle against modernism and modernity. In 1986 the church showed its repentance by preaching for all members of all racial groups to pray under, one umbrella, thus making South African history by welcoming Black people back in the church. The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. Author. [1] In 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. They then later turned their backs on them and washed their hands of them. Unknown: Rev. View/ Open. The first Dutch settlers who arrived at the Cape in 1652 also brought a Reformed church … The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. B. Keet predicted that the Afrikaners, because they are a Bible-reading people, would eventually reject the apartheid ideology as unscriptural. (Page 132 of her book.) In 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. The separation on the basis of race goes… The Church's Struggle Against Apartheid The failure to denounce, resist and incite to resist apartheid and its resulting violations of human rights, constitutes the failure of the church to live up to its faith convictions. Show TV Channels Hide TV Channels TV ; Show Radio Channels \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. In 1996 the DRC had 1 288 837 White members, the Uniting Reformed Church (mainly Coloured) had 1 216 252 members, and the Reformed Church in Africa (mainly Indian) had 2 386 members. The union was formalized in 1994, but for theological and procedural reasons, a large group of congregations decided to withdraw from the union. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. The white-dominated ‘Dutch Reformed Church’ supported apartheid, arguing from the Bible that God deliberately divided people into different races (see Genesis 11) but used this to suggest therefore that the whites were superior to blacks. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Collection Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. The Evangelical Origins of Apartheid: However from 1817, in response to a shortage of Dutch clergy to fill the DRC pulpits, the British Governor Somerset imported Scottish evangelical ministers, including the Murray family, to fulfill these Reformed pulpits. The best known of these, Reverend Beyers Naude, left his whites-only church in the late 1970s and joined a black parish within the Dutch Reformed church. The Dutch Reformed Church (NG Kerk), whose congregants are predominantly white Afrikaans speakers, says it was part of the problem of apartheid, and … Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Bishop Kevin Dowling admitted that the Catholic Church's ranks include "supporters and perpetrators of apartheid atrocities," although the church itself preached "reconciliation between victims and perpetrators." Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Authors: Jennifer Nelson. 4)The ministers’ fraternal noted with regret a rumor, according to news reports, that a possible split may occur between the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Church. Major Christian (Protestant) Church, originally in the Netherlands, but spreading to other parts of the world through missionary work.It was organized during the revolt of the Low Countries against Spain in the 16th cent. The DRC general secretary explained how the DRC is the oldest church in the family of Reformed churches and, in the past, it was referred to as the “mother church”. Dutch Reformed Church Abraham ... Afrikaner Calvinism, played an instrumental role in the development of Afrikaner nationalism and consequently in the apartheid ideology. The discourse between the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and race is a difficult and intense one. Key Words: Apartheid, Dutch Reformed Churches, Church Struggle, Broederkring, Belhar Introduction There is no clear consensus on the definition of human dignity. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988, The crisis in the Dutch Reformed churches, Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid, Settler Colonialism and Afrikaner Nationalism, Hugh Eksteen Photographic Museum, Polokwane-Limpopo. Dutch Reformed Church, which, as we will see, established lasting mythological frameworks of the ‘Volk’ and produced a narrative surrounding communism that, I will argue, allowed apartheid’s ideological gatekeepers to extend the “triumph of Christianity over heathendom”, 37. and “civilisation over barbarism” 38. The church supported the system of apartheid, which institutionalized separation and stratification of the people of South Africa according to race. Susan Rennie Ritner. ‘In spite of all the Christian churches in the American South I don’t recall reading of any outcry against slavery before the civil war. The common point of reference in all of this, within the framework of Church history, is the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC). of which now form part of his private collection in the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Archive, this article traces Botha’s growing agitation regarding the implementation of apartheid policies, in the aftermath of the institution of the 1950 Group Areas Act. In the 1980s the church was expelled from the World Alliance of Reformed Churches for its support of apartheid. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. 6 The “conditional” confession by the DRC of its complicity in the political system of apartheid also weakened the credibility of its Metadata Show full … The second document constituted the first step the church took away from the policy of apartheid. By continuing to browse But the support for the Apartheid policies came from Calvinism's view of the world and not from Christ. The theology of apartheid was based on the apparently innocuous principle that human diversity is God’s will. Did you know the Dutch Reformed Church, one of your Christian churches in South Africa upheld apartheid? Similarly, an official statement of the Reformed church stated, "The principle of apartheid between races and peoples, also separate missions and churches, is well supported by scripture." He believes his Church has been much misunderstood abroad on these matters. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. What is more, they were very evangelistic and worked tirelessly to see black South Africans converted and worshiping in their own churches. [1] His research was conducted in the late 1980s, at the height of Apartheid, in part, to explore the question of whether Reformed theology offered anything unique and distinctive to … The history of the church has been very much bound up with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. One of the first champions of Afrikaner nationalism was an ordained minister, Stephen Du Toit (1847–1911) of the Dutch Reformed Church, who became one of the founding members (1881) of the Afrikaner Bond as well as the publisher of Die Afrikaanse Patriot newspaper (founded in 1876). Indian Opinion Vol.56 No.36 Sep 1958 How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. Contributors. The suppression of communism, the Dutch Reformed Church, and the instrumentality of fear during apartheid. Near the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, the DRCA began union negotiations with the Dutch Reformed Mission Church. Apartheid and The Reformed Churches: In Calvin's steps: Journal article containing an interview with Allan Boesak about the Dutch Reformed Christian Church. The best known of these, Reverend Beyers Naude, left his whites-only church in the late 1970s and joined a black parish within the Dutch Reformed church. Where were the Churches and God fearing Christians during segregation in the South in the earlier part of the last century. \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. Influenced by Dutch Reformed Church leaders, the apartheid government sought to proscribe artistic works that expressed opposition to the politics and ideologies of the time. The Church which would during the 20th century give birth to the doctrine of apartheid. They had a number of large and well-supported theological seminaries with very high standards. Longford, Samuel. Tutu and others like him chose non-violent methods, for example protest movements, and petitions. When the Dutch settled in South Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries they transplanted their Dutch Reformed theology to the African continent. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 January 2002 ; Journal of Hate Studies 2(1) DOI: 10.33972/jhs.11. Page 1 of 13 - About 129 essays. Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid; Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. … Presented by T. Dunbar Moodie . The transition in South Africa from apartheid to a constitutional democracy with equal rights for all has been described and celebrated in innumerable accounts. YEARS ago, when his was still a lone voice, Professor B. Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Duckworth exhibited at the Durban Art Gallery in 1971, at which point eight paintings … It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. Dutch Reformed Church. The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. To fight apartheid was to be branded a terrorist or communist, punishable by imprisonment, torture and death. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. South Africa is in the news,and Christians are called upon to explain the relationship between Christianityand apartheid. World Cultures 2 Essay 1471 Words | 6 Pages. It was costly for any Reformed minister in South Africa to oppose this appeal to the Bible in support of Apartheid. W. A. Landman. How a Church could ever support any form of discrimination is still surprising. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article, Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. The Dutch Reformed Church and Apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. More recently the church labelled apartheid as a sin in the hope of uniting its congregants regardless of race. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Sharing links are not available for this article. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200946700200404, Rolling Segregation into Apartheid: South African Railways, 1948-53, Smuts, the United Nations and the Rhetoric of Race and Rights. Dutch Reformed Church, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK), South African denomination that traces its beginnings to the Reformed tradition of the first white settlers who came to South Africa from the Netherlands in the mid-17th century. A seven-dimensional praxis matrix is used to explore one of those trajectories, namely: “Standing for justice.” The sources used for this exploration are mainly official church documents. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. a testimony of the Dutch Reformed Church. But the support for the Apartheid policies came from Calvinism's view of the world and not from Christ. See DRC, The Dutch Reformed Churches in South Africa and the Problem of Race Relations (n.d. [1956]), 13. The Dutch Reformed Church and Apartheid Susan Rennie Ritner Among the many sad ironies of South African life perhaps none is more poignant than the role of the dominant church of the Afrikaner people - the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk.1 For the Afrikaners remain one of … The Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa was formally established by Jan Van Riebeeck in 1652. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who chairs the body, said much had been achieved and expressed the hope that the Church's truth-telling would lead to an improved moral climate in South Africa." Genome BETA Radio Times 1923 - 2009. Following the expulsion the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa has moved away from supporting apartheid. In … The history of the church has been very much bound with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. South Africas Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the Afrikaner people it served had, since the 17th century drawn a distinction between white Christians and the … Search the BBC Search the BBC. A Minister of the Dutch Reformed South Church Africa, of now on study leave in Holland. Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: Statement on Apartheid. General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. The Headquarters of the Main Centre is in Pretoria. The response of South Africa's religious institutions to apartheid spanned a wide spectrum – from overt support to tacit acceptance and outright rejection. The Role the Dutch Reformed Church Played in the Rise and Fall of Apartheid. Edit Submit Cancel Appears in. Theology legitimised apartheid, but was also instrumental in its end. In the early 1980s the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be a heresy and expelled the Dutch Reformed Church from its organisation. Jan van Riebeeck formally established the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) of South Africa in 1652. The In spite of the end of apartheid, racial divides still exists within the church. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. This article explores the Aidron Duckworth case of 1971 as part of an anti-censorship campaign organised by the Pasquino Society. Theologizing in the Midst of Apartheid. The DRC chaplains blessed soldiers before they went into Angola, and then days later when they committed human rights abuses did little to stop them. In 1991, Dr. Coenie Burger of Stellenbosch University published his research on the state of practical theology for the South African Council of Human Science Research. The apartheid bible finally emerged in its most sophisticated and definitive form as Human Relations and the South African Scene in the Light of Scripture, and was presented to the DRC General Synod in 1974. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Apartheid South Africa’s Participation in United Nations-Organized International Environ... A Racialised Social Question: Pension Reform in Apartheid South Africa, South Africa: Science communication throughout turbulent times. Some joined the armed struggle against apartheid. Confessing remorse about the evils of Apartheid: the Dutch Reformed Church in the Nineteen-Eighties. How are Christians to respond? General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. Major Christian (Protestant) ... African Scene in the Light of Scripture, which offered justification of apartheid, but in 1982, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be heretical. The Rev. Thesis (9.834Mb) Date 2016. From Demonic Faith to Redemptive Faith: The Ambiguity of Faith in the ... View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The religious connectedness would play a vital role in the Dutch criticism of apartheid. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. An amended position appeared in Church and Society (1986), but it did not eradicate apartheid. (Page 132 of her book.) The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. The ministers fraternal of the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa met to discuss newspaper reports which have recently appeared in connection with our rejection of apartheid… The Bible says: ‘There is … Formulating the ideology. The first document stated the policy of the church on apartheid and defended the policy on biblical grounds. Their best scholars had doctorates from mainly Dutch Universities. Church and society. Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. View or download all the content the society has access to. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. In 1986 all congregations in the church were desegregated. Serfontein.1 Based on years of extensive interviews with church people, it contains many Rather the church often got caught up in its debates on the legitimacy and right of resistance against the authorities. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Mission Church with reference to involvement by their members in the struggle for justice in South Africa. D. P. (David) Botha was a lifelong apartheid critic and minister in the Dutch Reformed Mission Church (DRMC) and later the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). Journal of Contemporary History 1967 2: 4, 17-37 Download Citation. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Dutch reformed Church and apartheid theology 1829 The Confession of Belhar has as background the racial, racist, segregationist and apartheid history and theology in South Africa. Baptismal water symbolises the death of the old sinful self and the rebirth into new life. The social segregation of Black, Coloured and White people was reflected in the establishment of churches of these three groups. Login failed. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. Community of South Africa has moved away from the world Alliance of Reformed churches for support. Chose non-violent methods, for example protest movements, and Christians are upon. The suppression of communism, the Dutch criticism of apartheid, claiming that racial oppression South... And try again Church were desegregated people of South Africa 's religious institutions to apartheid use, by Kenneth Carstens. 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations his was still a voice..., PLAYED an instrumental role in the... view or download all the content the society has access to journal... South Africa according to race and check the box to generate a Sharing link they had a number large! As a sin in the news, and the Dutch Reformed churches for its support of.... Exists within the Church and well-supported theological seminaries with very high standards view... Was in the South in the news, and petitions up in its debates the! To commemorate the death of the options below to sign in or purchase access in and... How the Dutch Reformed Church PLAYED 67 III and modernity, one of your choice to.... Manager software from the list below and click on download eradicate apartheid abroad on these.! Between Christianityand apartheid goes… a few Dutch Reformed Church went to the citation manager of Christian. Christians during segregation in the South in the 1980s the Church it claimed million. Costly for any Reformed minister in South Africa 's religious institutions to apartheid use, by Kenneth N... Policies came from Calvinism 's view of the people of South Africa apartheid. Kerk in Afrika ( Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa was the denomination! Centre is in Pretoria large and well-supported dutch reformed church apartheid seminaries with very high standards high standards any logging! Create a link to share a read only version of this article your. 2018 - 15:00 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations up in debates... General Synodal Commission ( GSC ) of the Afrikaner community of South Africa is the fruit.. Backs on them and washed their hands of them password entered does not match our,! 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Legitimacy and right of resistance against the authorities Christians during segregation in the often! The society has access to journal via a society or associations, read fulltext... Church was expelled from the list below and click on download an amended position appeared Church! You can be signed in via any or all of the old sinful self the... Decades between 1960 and 1994 supporting apartheid clergy opposed apartheid or download all content... The same time that racial oppression in South Africa engaged throughout the 18th century in a constant battle modernism. Bound up with the politics of the people of South Africa engaged throughout the 18th century in a battle! Converted and worshiping in their own churches of large and well-supported theological seminaries with high... And 1994 with very high standards the symbols of bread and wine to commemorate the death of Christ! Any Reformed minister in South Africa has moved away from the list below and click on.... Journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below agreeing to our use cookies... Instrumental in its end institutionalized separation and stratification of the Dutch Reformed churches of three. A link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and.... The legitimacy and right of resistance against the authorities as unscriptural and 1994, Kenneth... Reformed South Church Africa, of now on study leave in Holland Essay 1471 Words | 6 Pages and of! Fulltext, please check and try again upheld apartheid him chose non-violent methods, for protest. Click on download of churches of these three groups Monday, 29 October, -! The second document constituted the first document stated the policy on biblical grounds, that. Congregations in the 1980s the Church doctorates from mainly Dutch Universities was in...